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Typhoid || Sign and symptoms || Pathophysiology || Etiology || Pathogenesis | Complications in Hindi

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What is typhoid?
Sign and symptoms of typhoid.
Etiology/ causes of typhoid.
Complication of typhoid
Pathogenesis of typhoid.
Diagnosis and treatment of typhoid.

Typhoid is a bacterial infection that takes place due to the consumption of food and water which is contaminated by bacteria named Salmonella Typhimurium. Typhoid is also called as enteric fever.
Note: once exposed, The bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium is found in the intestine and blood of a human. And the animals don’t carry this disease hence its transmission is always done by a human.
The incubation period for the Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) is 1-2 weeks and the illness lasts for 3-4weeks.
Incubation period: it is the time between exposure to an infection and the appearance of the first symptoms.

Complication of typhoid
The most common complication of typhoid fever is intestinal bleeding or holes. It develops in the third week of illness. It is marked by the presence of blood in the stool.
The less common complication is:
Inflammation of heart muscle (myocarditis)
Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
Kidney or bladder infection.

Diagnosis and treatment
A diagnosis of typhoid fever can usually be confirmed by analyzing a sample of bloody stools or urine. These will be examined under the microscope for Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria.
Note that the Widal test is one method that may ve used to help make a presumptive diagnosis of typhoid fever.
In order to treat typhoid fever, the administration of antibiotics is the best option available.
The antibiotics used for the treatment of typhoid fever are listed below:
Ceftriaxone. (alternative of ciprofloxacin, usually injected in children).

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